Ancestors of ferrets were den animals, so the home you create should be like a den, too. Use a wire cage that's at least 18 inches long, 18 inches deep, and 30 inches wide. Most ferrets would rather live in bi-level cages that have stairs or ramps that they can climb, and shelves where they can perch. Try to avoid aquariums because they provide poor ventilation. Because ferrets are known to find ways to escape their cage, the cage should feature a secure latch and openings no larger than one inch by two inches.
It is known that wire flooring is uncomfortable to a ferret's feet so placing linoleum tiles on the floor or lining the cage bottom with soft material such as washable carpet will make for a more comfortable living condition. It is not a good idea to use wood flooring because it is difficult to disinfect and newspaper will blacken a ferret's feet, and cedar chips hold in bad odors and may even cause respiratory problems. It's best to place the cage away from direct sunlight, in a cool, shaded area where temperatures range between 55 and 70 degrees. Clean bedding with a mild detergent and hot water, then disinfect the cage.
You can save yourself time from cleaning a ferret's cage by simply teaching the animal to use a litter box. Find a small cardboard or plastic tray that is three to five inches high to serve as a litter box, and secure it to one side of the cage, away from sleeping and eating areas. Clumping litter will irritate a ferret's eyes and may cause respiratory problems, so fill the litter tray with one inch or more of pelleted litter products made from paper or plant fibers. Ferrets aren't as fastidious as cats and may not cover their waste regularly, so you will probably need to scoop the litter more often.
Ferrets enjoy their naps and will often sleep 15 to 20 hours a day. But when they are awake, ferrets like to be active, so the more you entertain them, the happier and less mischievous they will be. Ferrets love to crawl through almost anything, including PVC piping, cardboard boxes, paper bags, clothes dryer hoses, and even denim blue jeans. Safely secure a toy to the top of the cage, and your guest may be content to bat the object around for a while. Ferrets are obligate carnivores and their good health depends on a quality ferret diet that contains at least 34% animal meat protein and 22% fat. Cat and dog foods are not appropriate. Snacks, such as chicken or turkey, are recommended. Vegetables should be avoided because they are difficult to digest and may cause choking or gastrointestinal blockages. Fruits should not be given because they contain fructose and sugars that have been shown to exacerbate insulinoma conditions. Egg whites and raw onion can lead to hemolytic anemia.
Ferrets are social creatures who enjoy visiting with people, so let them roam frequently in a secure area outside of their cages. Although they have a great sense of smell and acute hearing, ferrets have limited vision, which means you should avoid sudden movements and speak in a gentle voice before approaching. Because ferrets have fragile skeletons, be sure to handle them carefully. Never pick up a ferret by the tail; instead, let the ferret come to you, then lift him from behind using two hands—one to support his chest and one to cradle his hips. You can also grasp the scruff of a ferret's neck and support his bottom with your hands. Remember, too, that ferrets are known to nip. If you point a finger at a ferret or poke him, he may think you're an enemy or a source of food.
To put it kindly, ferrets don't always come up smelling like roses. A ferret's sebaceous glands, which are used to mark territory, secrete oil with a natural musky odor, and the animal's anal scent glands can spray just like a skunk's. You should spay or neuter your ferret to minimize odors, and also change the bedding frequently. Bathing a ferret with kitten shampoo, ferret shampoo, or diluted baby shampoo can also help. But too many baths will only force the animal's scent and oil glands to work overtime. Ferrets are prone to ear mites, so every few weeks their ears should be cleaned with a cotton swab soaked in a cleanser purchased at a pet supply store. Like dogs and cats, ferrets are prone to fleas and ticks, but a veterinarian should help you meet their needs in that department.